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Ashcroft Technology Academy

Ashcroft Technology Academy

GCSE Psychology

SLEEP AND DREAMING CHECKLIST

This list is not absolute. This is the essential content you need to have revised, however you need to be aware that you must also consider two core areas of Psychology to be able to write a 13 Mark question effectively on sleep and dreaming. You will also be required to demonstrate their knowledge and understanding on debates within psychology, including ‘reductionism/holism’, ‘nature/nurture’ and ‘freewill/determinism’.

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised

Key Concepts

  • Be able to identify and explain the functions, features and benefits of sleep
  • Be able to explain a healthy brain; physical repair; emotional stability
  • Be able to identify and describe the  stages of the sleep cycle and when dreaming occurs
  • Be able to know and explain the role of the pineal gland and melatonin
  • Be able to know the causes of sleep disorders: sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia
  • Be able to explain Endogenous pacemakers; and exogenous zeitgebers; and their role in sleep.

 

 

Theories/Explanations:

Freudian Theory of Dreaming

  • Be able to describe and explain the Freudian Theory of Dreaming:
  • Be able to explain the unconscious mind
  • Be able to explain  the role of repression
  • Be able to explain the concept of wish fulfilment
  • Be able to explain manifest and latent content of dreams
  • Be able criticise of the Freud’s theory including the issue of subjectivity.
  • Be able to describe and criticise the Freudian Theory of Dreaming Research Study – Freud (1918): dream analysis study of ‘The Wolfman’.

 

The Activation Synthesis Theory of Dreaming

  • Be able to explain The Activation Synthesis Theory of Dreaming
  • Be able to explain  the role of REM sleep
  • Be able to know and explain the function and actions of the brain during sleep, including the limbic system
  • Be able to explain  activity of neurons in the pons during sleep
  • Be able to explain the process of synthesis as a function of the cerebral cortex
  • Be able to  criticise the theory
  • Be able to explain The Activation Synthesis Theory of Dreaming Research Study into the Differences in actions and functions of the brain when dreaming and when awake by Williams et al. (1992): study into Bizarreness in Dreams and Fantasies
  • Be able to criticise the Activation Synthesis theory of Dreaming  

 

Application Development of treatments for insomnia

  • Be able to know and explain the features of insomnia,
  • Be able to explain  the role of the nervous system and its management through relaxation techniques
  • Be able to know the role of the physical environment in insomnia and its treatment through improved sleep hygiene
  • Be able to know the impact of neurological damage to the hypothalamus on sleep

 

 

MEMORY CHECKLIST

This list is not absolute. This is the essential content you need to have revised, you need to be aware that you must understand the key terms and how they affect the memory process.  More importantly, you should be able to describe and criticise the two theories and two-research support. Crucially, you need have an understanding of how research on Memory is applied to individuals in society.

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised

Key Concepts in Memory

You need to familiarize yourself with these key terms to enable you understand this unit.

  • Be able to identify the stages of information processing input; encoding; storage; retrieval; and output
  • Be able to identify and explain types of forgetting: decay; displacement; retrieval failure (lack of cues)
  • Know the structure and functions of the brain and how the brain works in the formation of memories
  • Be able to explain how neurological damage can affect memory
  • Be able to explain the role of the hippocampus on anterograde amnesia; the frontal lobe on retrograde amnesia; and the cerebellum on procedural memory

 

 

Theories/Explanations

The Multi-store Model of Memory (this is the first theory that tries to explain memory; you need to always know the research to support the theory).

  • Be able to identify and explain The structure and process of the Multi-store Model of memory
  • Be able to explain the different stores: sensory store, short-term memory and long-term memory
  • Be able to know and explain the differences between stores in terms of duration
  • Be able to know and explain the differences between stores in terms of capacity
  • Be able to know and explain the differences between stores in terms of types of encoding
  • Be able to criticise of the model including rehearsal versus meaning in memory. The Multi-store Model of Memory
  • Be able to describe and explain the Research Study by Wilson, Kopelman and Kapur (2008): Prominent and persistent loss of past awareness in amnesia: delusion, impaired consciousness or coping strategy (the Clive Wearing study)

 

 

The Theory of Reconstructive Memory (second theory to help understand the memory process).

  • Be able to explain the structure and process of the theory of reconstructive memory
  • Be able to explain the concept of schemas
  • Be able to identify and explain  the role of experience and expectation on memory
  • Be able to describe  the process of confabulation
  • Be able to explain the effects of  distortion and the effect of leading questions
  • Be able to  criticise of the theory including the reductionism
  • Be able to describe and criticise Reconstructive Memory Research Study by Braun, Ellis and Loftus (2002): study into How Advertising Can Change Our Memories of the Past.

 

 

Application Techniques used for recall

  • Be able to explain the use of cues
  • Be able to explain repetition
  • Be able to explain why the need to avoid overload in advertisements
  • Be able to explain the reason behind the  use of autobiographical advertising
  • Be able to explain the development of neuropsychology for measuring different memory functions, including the Wechsler Memory Scale.

 

 

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY CHECKLIST

This list is not absolute. This is the essential content you need to have revised. To be successful in the Psychology GCSE you must be confident in your knowledge of each study and theory that we look at across the course. Within each of the 7 topics, you need to be able to define key terms, describe theories, breakdown studies, evaluate key principles and explain the neuropsychology behind each concept.

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised

The stages of development

  • Be able to identify and define all four stages of development
  • Explain what typically happens as a person goes through each stage

 

The nervous system, neurons and synapses

  • Be able to explain what the nervous system is and how it works
  • Be able to explain what neurons are and how they work
  • Be able to explain what the synapse is and how it works

 

The stages of brain development

  • Be able to explain how the brain develops during the pre-natal stage
  • Be able to explain how the brain develops during childhood
  • Be able to explain how the brain develops during adolescence
  • Be able to explain how the brain develops during adulthood

 

IQ tests as a measure of intelligence

  • Be able to define intelligence and IQ test
  • Be able to provide examples of IQ tests being used
  • Be able to explain how IQ tests have been used as a form of social control and list the ethical issues that may arise as a result
  • Be able to explain at least three criticisms of using IQ tests

 

Piaget’s theory of cognitive development

  • Be able to describe the key features of his theory
  • Be able to explain what happens during the sensori-motor stage (including a definition of object permanence)
  • Be able to explain what happens during the pre-operational stage (including a definition of animism, egocentrism and reversibility)
  • Be able to explain what happens during the concrete operational stage (including a definition of conservation, decantation, seriation and linguistic humour)
  • Be able to what happens during the formal operational stage (including a definition of hypothetical thinking)
  • Be able to criticise Piaget’s theory using no less than four points.
  • To be able to explain how the theory might be seen as reductionist and holistic

 

Piaget’s Cognitive Development Research Study (1952) - a study into the conservation of number

  • Be able to explain the background of the study
  • Be able to identify the aim and hypothesis
  • Be able to explain the methods that were used (including the research method, experimental design, sample, and materials used)
  • Be able to explain the procedure (how the study was carried out)
  • To be able to explain the conclusions and results
  • To be able to explain all criticisms of the study

 

Dweck’s ideas on fixed and growth mindset

  • Be able to explain the difference between a fixed and a growth mind set
  • To give examples of the characteristics of a person with either mind set
  • To explain how both mind sets can affect performance in school
  • To be able to give examples of situations where a person could have more than one mind set
  • To be able to explain how having a growth mind set can reduce bullying
  • Be able to explain how praise can be used positively within a classroom
  • Be able to criticise her theory using no less than three points

 

Willingham’s ideas on the myth of learning styles

  • Be able to explain up to four reasons why Willingham does not favour the theory behind learning styles
  • Be able to define meaning for learning and explain using an example
  • Be able to criticise his theory using no less than three points

 

Blackwell, Trezesniewski and Dweck (2007) –  a study into implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition

  • Be able to explain the background of the study
  • Be able to identify the aim and hypothesis of both studies
  • Be able to explain the methods that were used (including the research method, experimental design, sample, and materials used)
  • Be able to explain the procedures of both studies(how the study was carried out)
  • To be able to explain the conclusions and results of each study
  • To be able to explain all criticisms of the studies

 

The application of Piaget’s ideas

  • Be able to explain how Piaget’s ideas have been used within the education system and the creation if key stages
  • Be able to explain how the education system caters for children in the sensori-motor stage
  • Be able to explain how the education system caters for children in the pre-operational stage
  • Be able to explain how the education system caters for children in the concrete operational stage
  • Be able to explain how the education system caters for children in the formal operational stage
  • Be able to explain, using examples, what active learning is

 

The application of Dweck and Willingham’s ideas

  • Be able to identify what teachers can do to improve the mind set of their students
  • Be able to identify what schools have done to move away from learning styles and take on Willingham’s ideas surrounding meaning for learning

 

 

SOCIAL INFLUENCE CHECKLIST

This list is not absolute. This is the essential content you need to have revised. To be successful in the Psychology GCSE you must be confident in your knowledge of each study and theory that we look at across the course. Within each of the 7 topics, you need to be able to define key terms, describe theories, breakdown studies, evaluate key principles and explain the neuropsychology behind each concept.

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised

The key concepts surrounding social influence

  • Be able to  explain how the majority influences conformity
  • Be able to explain the difference between collective and crowd behaviour and explain how they might influence behaviour
  • Be able to define both anti-social and pro-social behaviour
  • Be able to define obedience and explain how it might influence behaviour

 

The effects of situational factors on behaviours

  • Be able to explain the difference between normative and informational conformity using Asch’s line study
  • Be able to explain collective and crowd behaviours using Reicher’s case study of the St Pauls Riots
  • Be able to explain the difference between collectivist and individualist culture.
  • Be able to explain how anti-social and pro-social behaviours can be the product of the different types of culture
  • Be able to explain the relationship between authority an obedience using Milgram’s shock experiment
  • To be able to explain Milgram’s Agency Theory

 

Criticisms of situational factors

  • Be able to list at least one criticism of the content of each situational factor

 

Bickman (1974) –  a study into the power of uniform

  • Be able to explain the background of the study
  • Be able to identify the aim and hypothesis
  • Be able to explain the methods that were used (including the research method, experimental design, sample, and materials used)
  • Be able to explain the procedure (how the study was carried out)
  • To be able to explain the conclusions and results
  • To be able to explain all criticisms of the study

 

The effect of dispositional factors on behaviour

  • Be able to explain to define self-esteem and explain how it links to conformity
  • To be able to explain what Locus of Control is and tell the difference between internal and external LoC.
  • To be able to explain how morality affects either pro-social or anti-social behaviour using Kohlberg’s study
  • To be able to explain how authoritarian personalities result in obedience using Adorno’s study

 

The influence of the brain in dispositional factors

  • To be able to explain the neuropsychology behind brain differences and personality

 

Criticisms of dispositional factors

  • Be able to list at least one criticism of the content of each dispositional factor

 

 

NatCen Morrell, Scott, McNeish, Webster, (2001) – a study into the August Riots in England

  • Be able to explain the background of the study
  • Be able to identify the aim and hypothesis
  • Be able to explain the methods that were used (including the research method, experimental design, sample, and materials used)
  • Be able to explain the procedure (how the study was carried out)
  • To be able to explain the conclusions and results
  • To be able to explain all criticisms of the study

 

Minority influence and social change: the stigma of mental health and discrimination

  • Be able to describe using examples, how minority groups have influenced change in the past
  • Be able to explain Moscovici’s theory of why minorities are able to influence the majority
  • Be able to explain what the work of different charities and organisations such as Heads Together, Mind, Time to Change have achieved to change the stigma surrounding mental health

 

Majority influence and social change: mental  health stigma and discrimination

  • Be able to describe the use of nationwide charities have used their majority to change the stigma surrounding mental health
  • Be able to explain how surveys have been used nationally
  • Be able to explain how we, ourselves, can change the stigma surrounding mental health

 

 

CRIME CHECKLIST

This list is not absolute. This is the essential content you need to have revised, however you need to be aware that you must also consider contrasting theories/studies for each element of the checklist and its importance (both individually, and in relation to other theories in this section.)

 

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised

Key concepts of Crime

  • Explain different types of crime including: violent; drug related; acquisitive; sexual; and anti-social offences
  • Criminal behaviour as a social construct including deviation from norms and the role of culture in defining criminal/anti-social behaviour
  • How crime is measured: official statistics and self-report.

 

Social Learning Theory

  • The Social Learning Theory of Criminality:
  • Identification with role models
  • The role of observation and imitation
  • The process of vicarious reinforcement
  • The role of direct reinforcement and internalisation
  • Criticisms of the theory including the nature/nurture debate.
  • Social Learning Theory Research Study – Cooper and Mackie (1986): Study into video games and aggression in children.
  • Can you outline the aims, method, results and conclusion?
  • Can you criticise the theory?

 

Eysenck’s Criminal Personality Theory

  • Eysenck’s Criminal Personality Theories (1964 and 1992) and the
    Biological Basis of Personality (1967)
  • extraversion; neuroticism; and psychoticism; in relation to criminal
    behaviour
  • how the central nervous system relates to cognitions and behaviour,
    with specific reference to arousal levels and the criminal personality
  • how functions of the brain relate to cognitions and behaviour with specific reference to synapses and dopaminergic neurons and how
    they interact in an overactive dopamine system in psychoticism
  • the role of dopamine reward systems; the reticular activation system
    and the cerebral cortex in extroversion
  • the role of the autonomic nervous and the limbic system in
    neuroticism
  • the role of early socialisation and difficulties in conditioning children
  • criticisms of the theory including the issue of individual differences.
  • Criminal Personality Theory Research Study – Heaven (1996): Study into delinquency, extroversion, psychoticism and self-esteem.
  • Criticisms of Heaven (1996): Study into delinquency

 

Application

The changing nature of punishment

  • The role of rehabilitation in reducing criminal/anti-social behaviour; and increasing pro-social behaviour; including restorative justice; and the use of positive role models
  • The effects of punishment and deterrents in reducing criminal/ anti-social behaviour; including the use of prisons; community sentences; and fines.

 

 

PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS CHECKLIST

This list is not absolute. This is the essential content you need to have revised, however you need to be aware that you must also consider contrasting theories/studies for each element of the checklist and its importance (both individually, and in relation to other theories in this section.

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised

Key Concepts

An introduction to mental health:

  • Ways of defining mental health, including the mental health
    continuum
  • The current prevalence of mental health problems, including
    current statistics and differences between age; gender; and
    sexual orientation
  • The incidence of significant mental health problems over time,
    including changing classification; similarities and differences; and how attitudes have changed towards mental health in the UK since the 1959 Mental Health Act.
  • The effects of significant mental health problems on the individual and society:
  • The effects of stigma on individuals before and after diagnosis
    The effects of discrimination on individuals before and after
    diagnosis
    The effects of significant mental health problems on the wider society, including care in the community.
     

 

Key concepts of Schizophrenia

  • The clinical characteristics of schizophrenia as outlined in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
  • Key statistics of schizophrenia including reference to prevalence; age; sex; ethnicity; and recovery rates

 

Biological Explanations of Schizophrenia

  • The biological theory of schizophrenia:
  • The dopamine hypothesis – the role of dopaminergic neurons and synaptic transmission in an overactive dopamine system causing high dopamine levels in the brain
  • How the structure and functions of the brain relates to
    cognitions and behaviour; brain dysfunction in relation to brain volume and brain activity – the roles of the frontal lobes; hippocampus; and temporal lobes; and the impact of neurological damage in schizophrenia
  • Criticisms of this theory including the nature/nurture debate.

 

Psychological Explanation of Schizophrenia

 

  • The psychological theory - the social drift theory of schizophrenia:
  • Rejection by society
    Disengagement of individuals
    Criticisms of this theory including problems establishing cause and effect.
  • Schizophrenia Research Study–
    the role of monoamines on cerebral function during specific prefrontal cognitive activation – Daniel, Weinberger, Jones et al. (1991): The effect of amphetamine on regional cerebral blood flow during cognitive activation in schizophrenia.
  • Can you outline the aims, method, result and conclusion?
  • Can you criticise this study?

 

Theories/Explanations of clinical depression

 

  • The clinical characteristics of clinical depression as outlined in the
    International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
  • Key statistics of clinical depression including reference to prevalence;
    age; sex; ethnicity; and recovery rates
     

 

Biological explanation of Clinical depression

  • The biological theory – the social rank theory of clinical depression:
  • The evolutionary function of depression
    The role of a lower rank in reducing conflict
    Criticisms of the theory including the reductionism/holism
    debate.
     

 

Psychological explanation of Clinical Depression

  • The psychological theory - the ABC Model of clinical depression:
  • Rational versus irrational beliefs
    The roles of activating events, beliefs and consequences
    Criticisms of the theory including the freewill/determinism debate.
  • Clinical Depression Research Study – Tandoc et al. (2015): Study into Facebook use, envy, and depression among college students: Is Facebooking depressing?
  • Can you outline the aims, method, results and conclusions?
  • Can you criticise this study?
     

 

Application

  • The use of anti-psychotics and anti-depressants to treat schizophrenia and clinical depression and how they improve mental health through changing the actions of the brain and interactions between neurons and synapses
  • The use of psychotherapy for treating schizophrenia and clinical depression and how it improves mental health
  • The development of neuropsychology for studying schizophrenia and clinical depression, including neuropsychological tests and brain imaging techniques.
     

 

 
 

RESEARCH METHODS CHECKLIST

This list is not absolute. This is the essential content you need to have revised, however you need to be aware that you must also consider contrasting theories/studies for each element of the checklist and its importance (both individually, and in relation to other theories in this section.)

 

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised

Hypotheses

  • Structure and write the following types of hypotheses:
    • Null and alternative hypotheses
    • Hypotheses to predict differences, correlations, or no patterns.

 

 

Variables

  • Identify the following Variables:
    • Independent variables and how they can be manipulated
    • Dependent variables and how they can be measured
    • Co-variables and how they can be measured
    • Extraneous variables and how they can be controlled, including the
      use of standardisation.

 

 

Experimental Designs

  • Identify and criticise:
    • Repeated measures design
    • Independent measures design.

 

 

Populations and Sampling

  • Identify and criticise:
    • Target populations, sampling and sample size with reference to representativeness and generalisability
    • Sampling methods; random, opportunity, self-selected
    • Principles of sampling as applied to scientific data.

 

 

Ethical Guidelines

  • Identify and criticise:
  • Ethical issues:
    • lack of informed consent
    • protection of participants / psychological harm
    • deception.
  • Ways of dealing with ethical issues:
    • use of debriefing
    • right to withdraw
    • confidentiality.
  • The British Psychological Society’s Code of Ethics and Conduct.

 

 

Experiments

  • Identify and criticise:
    • Laboratory experiments
    • Field experiments
    • Natural experiments

 

 

Interviews

  • Identify and criticise:
    • Structured interviews
    • Unstructured interviews

 

 

Questionnaires

  • Identify and criticise:
    • Open questions
    • Closed questions
    • Rating scales

 

 

Observations

  • Identify and criticise the following types of observations:
    • Naturalistic
    • Controlled
    • Overt
    • Covert
    • Participant
    • Non-participant

 

 

Case Studies

  • Identify and criticise:
    • Use of qualitative data
    • Use of small samples

 

 

Correlations

  • Identify and criticise:
    • Use of quantitative data
    • Positive, negative and zero correlations

 

 

Analyising Research

Types of Data

  • Identify and criticise:
    • Quantitative data
    • Qualitative data
    • Primary data
    • Secondary data
    • Strengths of each type of data

 

 

Descriptive Statistics

  • Be able to calculate the following:
    • Measures of Central Tendency:
    • Mode (including modal class)
    • Median
    • Mean.
    • Range
    • Ratios
    • Percentages
    • Fractions
    • Expressions in decimal and standard form
    • Decimal places and significant figures
    • Normal distributions
    • Estimations from data collected.
       

 

Tables, Charts and Graphs

  • Know how to draw and use the following appropriately
    • Frequency tables (tally chart)
    • Bar charts
    • Pie charts
    • Histograms
    • Line graphs
    • Scatter diagrams

 

 

Bias

  • Apply the following to research to use as a criticism:
    • Gender bias
    • Cultural bias
    • Age bias
    • Experimenter bias
    • Observer bias
    • Bias in questioning

 

 

Doing Research

  • Be able to explain these forms of reliability:
    • internal
    • external
    • inter-rater.
    • validity
    • ecological
    • population
    • construct.
       
  • Be able to explain Demand characteristics
  • Be able to explain Observer effect
  • Be able to explain Social desirability.