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Ashcroft Technology Academy

Ashcroft Technology Academy

GCSE Geography

Paper 1: Living with the physical environment

Section A: The challenge of natural hazards

  • Tectonic hazards
  • Weather hazards
  • Climate change

Section B: The living world

  • Ecosystems
  • Rainforests
  • Cold environments (do not answer the questions about hot deserts)

Section C: Physical landscapes in the UK

  • UK physical landscapes
  • River landscapes
  • Coastal landscapes
     

Paper 2: Challenges in the human environment

Section A: Urban issues and challenges

  • LIC case study: Rio de Janeiro
  • HIC case study: London

Section B: The changing economic world

  • Development and quality of life
  • LIC case study: Swaziland
  • Economic futures in the UK

Section C: The challenge of resource management

  • Food, water and energy resources in the UK
  • Energy demand and supply (do not answer the questions about food or water)
     

Paper 3: Geographical applications

Section A: Issue evaluation

  • Topic and pre-release booklet published at the start of March

Section B: Fieldwork

  • Fieldwork and data analysis skills
  • River Tillingbourne enquiry
  • Olympic Park enquiry
  •  

GCSE Geography case studies and examples

Paper 1 – Living with the physical environment

Module

Sections

Case studies

Examples

The challenge of natural hazards

Tectonic Hazards

 

Nepal Earthquake

Christchurch Earthquake

Weather hazards

 

Typhoon Haiyan

St Jude’s Day Storm

Climate Change

 

 

Physical landscapes in the UK

UK Physical Landscapes

 

 

Coastal Landscapes

 

Holderness landforms

Holderness management (or Medmerry)

River Landscapes

 

River Tees

Jubilee River Flood Management Scheme

The living world

Ecosystems

 

Small Scale Ecosystem

Tropical Rainforests

 

Amazon

Cold Environment

Alaska

 

 

Paper 2 – Challenges in the human environment

Module

Sections

Case studies

Examples

Urban issues and challenges

Challenges and Opportunities in an LIC or NEE city

Rio

Urban planning – Favela Barrio

Challenges and Opportunities in an HIC city

London

Urban regeneration – Olympic Park

The changing economic world

Global variation in wealth and quality of life

 

 

Reducing the development gap

 

Tourism in Rwanda

A case study of an LIC

Swaziland

 

The UK economy

UK

Business Park in Cambridge

The challenge of resource management

Food, water and energy in the UK

 

Advantages and disadvantages of fossil fuel – Oil in Alaska.

Energy

 

Nepal – local renewable energy

 

Paper 3 – Geographical Applications

Module

Sections

Section A: Issue Evaluation

This changes each year. You will find out the topic 12 weeks before your exam.

Section B: Fieldwork and skills

Questions based on fieldwork in an unfamiliar context.

Questions based on your River Tillingbourne and Olympic Park fieldwork.

 

 

Paper 1: Living with the physical environment

Section A: The challenge of natural hazards

Weather Hazards revision checklist

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised.

-General atmospheric circulation model: pressure belts and surface winds.

  • Be able to describe and explain the tri-cellular model.

 

-Global distribution of tropical storms

-An understanding of the relationship between tropical storms and general atmospheric circulation.

-Causes of tropical storms and the sequence of their formation and development.

-The structure and features of a tropical storm.

-How climate change might affect the distribution, frequency and intensity of tropical storms.

  • Be able to describe the distribution of hurricanes, cyclones and typhoons.
  • Be able to explain the importance of trade winds in the formation of TRS.
  • Be able to give a step by step explanation of how tropical revolving storms are formed.
  • Be able to describe, with the aid of diagrams, the structure of TRS.
  • Be able to explain how climate change will affect distribution, frequency and intensity of tropical storms.

 

- Primary and secondary effects of tropical storms.

- Immediate and long-term responses to tropical storms.

- Use a named example of a tropical storm to show its effects and responses.

- How monitoring, prediction, protection and planning can reduce the effects of tropical storms.

  • Be able to outline general primary and secondary effects of tropical storms.
  • Be able to outline general immediate and long term responses to TRS.
  • Be able to describe the effects and responses to Typhoon Haiyan.
  • Be able to explain how monitoring, prediction, protection and planning can reduce the effects of tropical storms.

 

- Definition of a natural hazard.

 

- Types of natural hazard.

 

- Factors affecting hazard risk.

  • Be able to define the terms ‘hazard’, ‘risk’, ‘vulnerability’ and ‘capacity’.
  • Be able to identify a range of different natural hazards and categorise them.
  • Be able to describe where different types of natural hazards occur.
  • Be able to explain how different factors can affect hazard risk, such as:
  • Education
  • Building Design (electrics, plumbing, foundations, structure)
  • Building and Settlement Location
  • Housing and Population Density
  • Prediction, Alarms and Evacuation Procedures
  • Number, Type and Regularity of Hazards

 

- Types of weather hazard experience in the UK

  • Be able to identify the types of weather hazard that affect the UK
  • Be able to describe the effects (both positive and negative) of each type of weather hazard
  • Be able to, briefly, explain the occurrence of each type of weather hazard.
  • Heavy rainfall
  • Strong Winds
  • Blizzards
  • Heatwaves
  • Droughts/dry spells
  • Storm Surges

 

An example of a recent weather event in the UK:

- Causes

- Social, Economic and Environmental impacts

- How management strategies can reduce risk

  • Be able to explain the causes of the St Jude’s Day storm
  • Be able to describe the Social, Economic and Environmental impacts of the St Jude’s Day storm.
  • Be able to describe the responses to the St Jude’s Day storm
  • Be able to explain how the responses to the St Jude’s Day storm reduced the risk created by the storm.
  • Be able to explain the issues the UK faced in preparing for and responding to the effects of the UK storm.

 

- Evidence that weather is becoming more extreme in the UK

  • Be able to describe the evidence that weather in the UK is becoming more extreme.

 


Climate change revision checklist

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised.

- Definition of a natural hazard.

 

- Types of natural hazard.

 

- Factors affecting hazard risk.

  • Be able to define the terms ‘hazard’, ‘risk’, ‘vulnerability’ and ‘capacity’.
  • Be able to identify a range of different natural hazards and categorise them.
  • Be able to describe where different types of natural hazards occur.
  • Be able to explain how different factors can affect hazard risk, such as:
  • Education
  • Building Design (electrics, plumbing, foundations, structure)
  • Building and Settlement Location
  • Housing and Population Density
  • Prediction, Alarms and Evacuation Procedures
  • Number, Type and Regularity of Hazards

 

- Definition of climate change.

 

-Evidence for climate change from the beginning

of the Quaternary period to the present day..

  • Be able to define the terms ‘climate change, ‘global warming’ and ‘enhanced global warming
  • Be able to provide evidence that the earth’s climate has changed since the Quaternary period (2,6 million years ago).
  • Be able to identify, from graphs and other sources, the variation in climate during the Quaternary period.

 

- Possible causes for climate change

 

- Explanation of the greenhouse effect.

  • Be able to identify and explain ways the climate could have changed from both natural and human causes.
  • Natural:
  • Orbital theory
  • Volcanic activity
  • Solar output
  • Human:
  • Use of fossil Fuels
  • Agriculture
  • Deforestation
  • Understand how the greenhouse effect heats up the earth and how an    increase in greenhouse gases is adding to its effect.

 

Overview of effects of climate change on people and the environment.

  • Be able to describe the impacts that climate change will have on people and the environment. We looked at the following examples in class, however, you can learn and write about any impacts you know of:
  • Health
  • Water supplies
  • Plants, animals and ecosystems
  • Energy
  • Agriculture
  • Forest fires
  • Coastal flooding
  • recreation

 

How to manage climate change both through mitigation and adaptations

  • Be able to explain how to mitigate climate change through the following options – Alternative energy production, carbon capture and storage, planting trees and international agreements
  • describe what adaptations can be made in response to climate change and explain how they will work. We looked at the following options:
  • Change in agricultural system
  •  Managing water supplies
  • Reducing risk from sea level rise.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Tectonic Hazards revision checklist

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised.

‘Plate tectonic theory’

-Distribution of plates; contrasts between continental and oceanic plates.

- Destructive, constructive and conservative plate margins.

  • Be able to describe the layers of the earth and label them correctly onto a diagram.
  • Be able to describe oceanic and continental plates and identify their differences.
  • Be able to describe the location of different plate margins around the world.
  • Be able to explain what is happening at each type of plate margin.
  • Be able to draw an annotated diagram of each time of plate margin.

 

Features of earthquakes – epicentre, focus, shock waves and the measurement of earthquakes. Effects and responses.

  • Be able to identify and define the terms ‘epicentre’, ‘focus’ ‘primary waves’ and ‘secondary waves’
  • Be able to explain how the Moment Magnitude Scale measures earthquake magnitude.
  • Be able to describe the primary and secondary effects of earthquakes and the immediate and long term responses to earthquakes.

 

 

 

 

 

The effects of, and responses

to, a tectonic hazard vary between areas of contrasting levels of wealth.

  • Be able to describe the primary and secondary effects of the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake.
  • Be able to describe the immediate and long term responses to the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake.

 

 

 

  • Be able to describe the primary and secondary effects of the 2015 Nepal earthquake.
  • Be able to describe the immediate and long term responses to the 2015 Nepal earthquake.

 

 

 

  • Be able to explain why the effects of the L’Aquila earthquake were lesser than those in Nepal.
  • Be able to explain why the responses of the L’Aquila earthquake were more effective than those in Nepal.

 

Management can reduce the effects of earthquakes.

  • Be able to Reasons why people continue to live in areas at risk from earthquakes.
  • How monitoring, prediction, protection and planning can reduce the risks from  earthquakes

 

 

Section B: The living world

Ecosystems and tropical rainforests

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised.

- Ecosystems exist
at a range of scales and involve the interaction between biotic and abiotic components.

  • Be able to describe a hedgerow (a UK ecosystem) and use it to illustrate the concept of interrelationships within a natural system, an understanding of producers, consumers, decomposers, food chain, food web and nutrient cycling.
  • Be able to describe the balance between the above components. The impact on the ecosystem of changing one these components.
  • To be able to give an overview of the distribution and characteristics of large scale natural global ecosystems.

 

Tropical rainforest ecosystems have a range of distinctive characteristics.

  • To be able to describe the physical characteristics of a tropical rainforest.
  • To be able to explain the interdependence of climate, water, soils, plants, animals and people.
  • To explain how plants and animals adapt to the physical conditions of the TRF.
  • To be able to describe and explain the Issues related to biodiversity

 

 

Deforestation has economic and environmental impacts

  • To be able to describe changing rates of deforestation throughout time.

 

To be able to state a case study of a tropical rainforest to illustrate:

  • To be able to explain the causes of deforestation in the Amazon – subsistence and commercial farming, logging, road building, mineral extraction, energy development, settlement, population growth
  • To be able to explain the impacts of deforestation in the Amazon – economic development, soil erosion, contribution to climate change.

 

Tropical rainforests need to be managed to be sustainable.

  • To be able to describe the value of tropical rainforests to people and the environment.
  • To be able to explain different strategies used to manage the rainforest sustainably – selective logging and replanting, conservation and education, ecotourism and international agreements about the use of tropical hardwoods, debt reduction.

 

Cold environments -  Revision Checklist

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised.

Characteristics of cold environments

  1. Polar
  2. Tundra
  • Be able to explain the characteristics of both polar and tundra environments.
  • Be able to explain the interdependence of climate, permafrost, animals, plants, and people. 

 

Adaptation –

  1. Woolly bear caterpillar
  2. Snow saxifrage.
  • Be able to explain the characteristics of the snow saxifrage and how these allow the plant to survive and grow in cold environments.
  • Be able to explain the characteristics of the woolly bear caterpillar and how these allow it to survive in cold environments.
  • Be able to explain issues with biodiversity in cold environments.

 

Development opportunities –

Case study: Alaska

  1. Mineral extraction
  2. Energy: oil and gas
  3. Fishing
  4. Tourism
  • Be able to explain each of the industries and how they present opportunity/ benefits in cold environments, such as Alaska.
  • Be able to explain the issues with each of the development opportunities and how they may lead to conflict.

 

Challenges to development in cold environments.

  1. Inaccessibility
  2. Extreme temperatures
  3. Infrastructure
  4. General construction
  • Be able to explain the what each of the issues are in detail and how they present problems for development in cold environments.

 

 

Cold Environments and their value –

  1. Fragile environments ,
  2. Wilderness,
  3. The perception of value.
  • Be able to define what fragile environments are
  • Be able to define what the wilderness is
  • Be able to explain in detail why cold environments should be protected.

 

 

Strategies used to balance the needs of economic development and conservation in cold environments.

  1. Use of technology
  2. Role of governments
  3. International agreements
  4. Conservation groups
  • Be able to explain how each strategy protects cold environments.
  • Be able to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each strategy.

 

 

 

Section C: Physical landscapes in the UK

UK physical landscapes

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised.

The UK has a range of

diverse landscapes.

 

An overview of the location of major upland/lowland areas and river systems.

 

 

River landscapes

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised.

Processes of erosion

 

  • Be able to describe and explain how each of the following processes works:
  • Hydraulic action
  • Abrasion,
  • Attrition
  • Solution.
  • Vertical erosion
  • Lateral erosion

 

Processes of transportation

  • Be able to draw a diagram of each process of transportation.
  • Be able to explain how each process works (including the sediment size):
  • Traction
  • Saltation
  •  Solution
  • Suspension

 

 

  • Be able to explain why rivers deposit sediment

 

Long and cross profile

  • Be able to describe how the long and cross profile change from the source and mouth
  • Be able to explain why different processes dominate in certain areas of the long profile
  •  Be able to explain the reasons for certain features along this profile

 

River landforms.

  • Be able to describe, explain and draw the features of the following landforms:
  • Landforms resulting from erosion – interlocking spurs, waterfalls and gorges;
  • Landforms resulting from erosion and deposition – meanders and ox-bow lakes;
  • Landforms resulting from deposition – levees, floodplains and estuaries

 

 

An example of a river valley in the UK to identify its major landforms

of erosion and deposition.

  • Be able to identify and describe the landforms or erosion and deposition on the River Tees or River Tillingbourne.

 

Factors affecting river discharge

  •  Be able to describe and explain the factors affecting discharge.
  • type of rainfall
  • temperature
  • previous weather conditions
  • relief
  • rock type (impermeable, permeable, porous and pervious)
  • Land use.

 

Different management strategies can be used to protect river landscapes from the effects of flooding.

 

 

  • Be able to give the physical and human causes of flooding:
  • Precipitation
  • Geology
  • Relief
  • Land use
  • Be able to use hydrographs to show the relationship between precipitation and discharge.

 

  • Be able to explain the costs and benefits of the following management strategies:
  • Hard engineering – dams and reservoirs, straightening, embankments, flood relief channels
  • Soft engineering – flood warnings and preparation, flood plain zoning, planting trees and river restoration.

 

For the Jubilee River example of a flood management scheme, be able to explain:

  • why the scheme was required
  • the management strategy
  • the social, economic and environmental issues.

 

Coastal Landscapes in the UK-  Revision Checklist

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised.

Weathering processes –

  1. mechanical,
  2. chemical
  3. biological.

 

  • Be able to spot each different type of weathering on a photograph.
  • Be able to explain how each type of weathering works.

 

Mass movement –

  1. Sliding
  2. Slumping,
  3. Rock falls

 

  • Be able to explain the effect of mass movement on a coastline.
  • Be able to spot each different type of mass movement on a photograph.
  • Be able to explain how each type of mass movement works.

 

Processes of erosion –

  1. Hydraulic action
  2. Abrasion,
  3. Attrition
  4. Solution.
  • Be able to explain how each process works.

 

Geology of a coastline-

  • Be able to explain concordant and discordant coastlines.
  • Be able to explain how rock type and geological structure influence coastal forms.

 

Landforms resulting from erosion –

  1. Headlands and bays,
  2. Cliffs and wave cut platforms,
  3. Caves, arches and stacks.
  • Be able to describe each landform
  • Be able to explain how each landform is formed
  • Be able to spot each landform on a photo or OS map
  • Be able to make a detailed sketch labelling all the key features of each landform

 

Processes of transportation –

  1. Longshore drift,
  2. Traction,
  3. Saltation,
  4. Suspension
  5. Solution.
  • Be able to draw a diagram of each process of transportation.
  • Be able to explain how each process works (including the sediment size for all except LSD)
  • Be able to explain why sediment is transported

 

 

Landforms resulting from deposition –

  1. Beaches
  2. Spits
  3. Bars.

 

  • Be able to describe each landform
  • Be able to explain how each landform is formed
  • Be able to spot each landform on a photo or OS map
  • Be able to make a detailed sketch labelling all the key features of each landform

 

Case Study: Landforms at a UK coastline

 

  • Be able to describe the landforms that form at the Holderness coastline
  • Be able to identify the landforms at the Holderness coastline
  • Be able to explain how these landforms are formed.

 

 

Hard engineering

  1. Sea walls,
  2. Groynes,
  3.  Rock armour.

 

  • Be able to describe each method and explain how it works.
  • Be able to spot each method on a picture/OS map.
  • Be able to explain the positives and negatives of each method.

 

Soft engineering –

  1. Beach nourishment and reprofiling.
  2. Dune regeneration

Managed retreat-

  1. Coastal realignment

 

  • Be able to describe each method and explain how it works.
  • Be able to spot each method on a picture/OS map.
  • Be able to explain the positives and negatives of each method.
  • Be able to explain the conflict the effects and conflict that could be brought about by each method.

 

A case study of coastal management

  1. To assess the costs and benefits of strategies adopted.
  • Be able to explain how the Holderness coast is being protected. (management strategy)
  • Be able to explain why the Holderness coast is protected in this way. (reasons for management)
  • Be able to explain the positives and negatives of the way the Holderness coast is managed. (the effects and conflicts)

 

 

Paper 2: Challenges in the human environment

Section A: Urban issues and challenges

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised.

  1. The global pattern of urban change.
  2. Urban trends in different parts of the world including HICs and LICs.
  3. Factors affecting the rate of urbanisation – migration (push–pull theory), natural increase.
  4. The emergence of megacities.
  • Be able to describe the rate in which cities around the world have grown and are expected to grow in the future
  • Be able to explain the reasons for the difference in the rate of growth between HICs, NEEs and LICs.
  • Be able to explain how migration (both rural to urban migration and international migration) leads to the growth of urban areas
  • Be able to explain the role of natural increase in the growth of urban areas.
  • Be able to describe the distribution of megacities.

 

Rio de Janeiro

The location and importance of the city, regionally, nationally and internationally

Causes of growth: natural increase and migration

  • Be able to describe the location of Rio and the human and physical characteristics of the city.
  • Be able to describe the importance of Rio regionally, nationally and internationally.
  • Be able to explain the role of natural increase and migration in the growth of Rio.

 

 

How urban growth has created opportunities:

  • social: access to services – health and education; access to
  • resources – water supply, energy

economic: how urban industrial areas can be a stimulus for economic development

  • Be able to describe, using statistics, the higher standard of living available to residents of Rio compared to rural Brazil.
  • Be able to explain how urban growth has created social opportunities (better education and healthcare)
  • Be able to explain how urban growth has created economic opportunities (jobs in secondary industry, the port, tourism and how this has led to low levels of unemployment in Rio compared to elsewhere in Brazil).

 

 

How urban growth has created challenges:

• managing urban growth – slums, squatter settlements

• providing clean water, sanitation systems and energy

• providing access to services – health and education

• reducing unemployment and crime

• managing environmental issues – waste disposal, air and water pollution, traffic congestion.

  • Be able to describe the characteristics of squatter settlements and how they affect the lives of the people living there.
  • Be able to explain the reasons for the growth of the favelas in Rio.
  • Be able to explain how the challenges of squatter settlements (favelas in Rio) are being managed using the favela Bairro project as an example.
  • Be able to outline the issues with providing clean water, sanitation and energy in Rio and how the authorities are trying to manage these problems.
  • Be able to outline the issues with providing health and education services in Rio and how the authorities are trying to manage these problems.
  • Be able to explain how the authorities in Rio are attempting to reduce unemployment and crime.
  • Be able to outline environmental issues such as waste disposal, air and water pollution and congestion in Rio and how the authorities are trying to manage these problems.
  • Be able to explain how the favela Bairro project (urban planning) improved the quality of life for the urban poor.

 

 

London

Overview of the distribution of population and the major cities in the UK.

  • Be able to describe the population distribution in the UK
  • Be able to outline the location of the major cities in the UK

 

 

The location and importance of the city in the UK and the wider world

  • Be able to describe the location of London and how it is important to the UK and wider world.

 

 

impacts of national and international migration on the growth and character of the city

  • Be able to outline the successive waves of migration to London and how they have impacted the city.

 

 

How urban change has created opportunities:

• social and economic: cultural mix, recreation and entertainment, employment, integrated transport systems

• environmental: urban greening

  • Be able to outline the cultural mix in London and its advantages.
  • Be able to outline the diversity of employment options created by urban growth in London.
  • Be able to outline the benefits urban growth has had on London’s transport system.
  • Be able to explain the benefits of urban greening.

 

 

how urban change has created challenges:

• social and economic: urban deprivation, inequalities in housing,

education, health and employment

• environmental: dereliction, building on brownfield and

greenfield sites, waste disposal

• the impact of urban sprawl on the rural–urban fringe, and the

growth of commuter settlements.

  • Be able to describe and explain the causes of inequality and depravation in London.
  • Be able to explain the environmental problems created by urban growth in London.
  • Be able to explain the impact London has on the rural-urban fringe and commuter settlements.

 

 

An example of an urban regeneration project to show:

• reasons why the area needed regeneration

• the main features of the project.

  • Be able to outline the reasons why Newham needed redevelopment.
  • Be able to explain how the 2012 Olympics were designed to regenerate Newham

 

 

Features of sustainable urban living:

• water and energy conservation

• waste recycling

• creating green space.

How urban transport strategies are used to reduce traffic congestion.

  • Be able to describe the features of BedZED.
  • Be able to explain why the features of BedZED are sustainable.
  • Be able to describe and explain the strategies used to reduce congestion in London.

 

 


Section B: The changing economic world

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised.

- Different ways of classifying parts of the world according to their level of economic development and quality of life.

  • Be able to describe and explain the different methods that have been/are used to classify global development according to their level of economic development and quality of life (HIC, LIC, NIC; North/South divide or Brandt Line; five fold division based on wealth).
  • Be able to explain the strengths and weaknesses of each method of classification.

 

- Different economic and social measures of development: gross national income (GNI) per head, birth and death rates, infant mortality, life expectancy, people per doctor, literacy rates, access to safe water, Human Development Index (HDI).

  • Be able to define each development measure.
  • Be able to explain the limitations of each measure.
  • Be able to explain the limitations of using economic and social measures.

 

- Link between stages of the Demographic Transition Model and the level of development.

 

  • Be able to outline the Demographic Transition Model, including the changes at each stage.
  • Be able to explain how the changes that occur at each stage affect the level of development of a place.

 

- Causes of uneven development: physical, economic and historical.

- Consequences of uneven development: disparities in wealth and health, international migration.

 

  • Be able to explain how the physical geography of a country can either limit or enhance its development.
  • Be able to explain how economic factors (such as trading blocs) can either limit or enhance its development.
  • Be able to explain how historical factors (such as colonialism) can either limit or enhance its development.
  • Be able to describe (using development indicators) and explain how uneven development has led to differences in global wealth and health.
  • Be able to explain the link between uneven development and current trends in international migration.

 

- An overview of the strategies used to reduce the development gap: investment, industrial development and tourism, aid, using intermediate technology, fair-trade, debt relief, microfinance loans.

  • Be able to explain how each of the strategies listed (see left) can increase a country’s level of development.
  • Be able to suggest advantages and disadvantages of each strategy.

 

- An example of how the growth of tourism in an LIC or NEE helps to reduce the development gap.

  • Be able to explain how tourism has helped increase Rwanda’s level of development and reduce the development gap.

 

A case study of one LIC or NEE to illustrate:

• the location and importance of the country, regionally and globally

• the wider political, social, cultural and environmental context within which the country is placed

• the changing industrial structure. The balance between different sectors of the economy. How manufacturing industry can stimulate economic development

• the role of transnational corporations (TNCs) in relation to industrial development. Advantages and disadvantages of TNC(s) to the host country

• the changing political and trading relationships with the wider world

• international aid: types of aid, impacts of aid on the receiving country

• the environmental impacts of economic development

• the effects of economic development on quality of life for the population.

  • Be able to describe the location of Swaziland
  • Be able to explain Swaziland’s importance within Southern Africa and globally.
  • Be able to explain the political situation of Swaziland.
  • Be able to describe Swazi society and culture.
  • Be able to outline the physical geography of Swaziland.
  • Be able to describe and explain how Swaziland’s industrial structure has changed over time and the importance of secondary industries.
  • Be able to explain the role of Coca-Cola within Swaziland and its positive and negative impacts on the country.
  • Be able to explain how Swaziland trades with other countries and trading blocs.
  • Be able to outline the types of aid Swaziland receives, how it is used and to be able to evaluate the effectiveness of this aid.
  • Be able to explain the positive and negative impacts of Swaziland’s economic development on the environment.
  • Be able to explain how Swaziland’s economic development has improved people’s quality of life.

 

The changes in the UK economy and how it has affected, and will continue to affect, employment patterns and regional growth

  • Be able to explain the causes of economic change: de-industrialisation and decline of traditional industrial base (the North East of England)
  • Be able to explain the causes of economic change: globalisation
  • Be able to explain the causes of economic change: government policies (including privatisation and ‘rebalancing the economy’)
  • Be able to explain the processes including advantages and disadvantages of moving towards a post-industrial economy:
    • development of information technology
    • service industries
    • finance
    • research
  • Be able to explain the processes including advantages and disadvantages of moving towards a post-industrial economy: science and business parks using Cambridge Science Park as a case study.
  • Be able to explain impacts of industry on the physical environment using the example of Torr Quarry and how modern industrial development can be more environmentally sustainable
  • Be able to describe and explain the social and economic changes in the rural landscape in one area of population growth (South Cambridge) and one area of population decline (The Outer Hebrides)  
  • Be able to describe improvements and new developments in road and rail infrastructure, port and airport capacity and their positive and negative impacts
  • Be able to explain the north–south divide and the strategies (governmental financial support, foreign investment and therefore developing economies in the north) used in an attempt to resolve regional differences
  • Be able to describe and explain the place of the UK in the wider world. Links through trade, culture, transport, and electronic communication. Economic and political links: The European Union (EU) and Commonwealth.

 

 

Section C: The challenge of resource management

Content:

What you need to be able to do/ know:

Tick when revised.

Essential resources –

  1. Food,
  2. Water
  3. Energy

 

  • Be able to describe how these resources are needed for economic and social wellbeing.
  • Specific statistics that show how significant each resource is for wellbeing.

 

Global inequality in essential resources –

  1. Global inequalities in food
  2. Global inequalities in water
  3. Global inequalities in energy

 

  • Understand what HIC, LIC and NIC stand for
  • Understand how development of LIC and NIC’s has led for a change in consumption of resources.
  •  

 

Demand for food in the UK

 

  • Be able to explain how and why demand has changed in the UK.
  • Exports and Imports
  • The demand for organic produce and why?

 

Food miles and carbon footprints-

  • How is the UK coping with the change in food demand/ supply.
  • What is agribusiness and why the increasing trend in it?
  • What is organic farming why have it?
  • Local grown food- why? 

 

Water Resources UK

 

  • What is the distribution of water within the UK and what factors affect this distribution.
  • Definition of water surplus
  • Definition of water stress
  • Definition of water deficit

 

 

Water transfer schemes

  • What are water transfer schemes and why are they needed.
  • Case study Kielder Water

 

Water Pollution

  • What are the causes of water pollution in the UK?
  • How does water pollution affect the UK?
  • How is water quality managed in the UK?

 

Energy UK

  • General overview of the UK’s energy mix
  • What are the trends in the UK’s energy consumption?
  • In depth knowledge of nuclear, fossil fuels and renewable wind energy.
  • Knowledge of fracking and its relevance to the UK (economically and environmentally).
  • The economic and environmental issues associated with these three energy types.

 

Global energy consumption and supply

  1. The factors that affect energy consumption

 

 

 

 

 

  1. The physical factors that affect energy supply

 

 

 

 

  1. The human factors affecting energy supply.
  • Development
  • Population growth
  • Modern Technology
  • Geology
  • Climate
  • Environmental conditions

 

  • Geology
  • Climate
  • Environmental conditions

 

 

  • Cost, exploitation and production
  • Technology
  • Politics

You must know how each of these effects consumption/ supply.

 

 

Impacts of energy insecurity

  • Exploration difficultly
  • Environmental impacts of energy insecurity
  • Economic impacts of energy insecurity;  food production, industrial outputs.
  • Social impacts of energy insecurity
  • Potential for conflict: Both within and between countries.

 

Strategies to increase energy supply

  • renewable (biomass, wind, hydro, tidal, geothermal, wave and solar)
  • non-renewable (fossil fuels and nuclear power) sources of energy

 

An example to show how the extraction of a fossil fuel has both advantages and disadvantages.

  • The advantages and disadvantages of oil extraction in Alaska.

 

Moving towards a sustainable resource future

  • Carbon footprint and individual energy use
  • Designing homes for conservation and efficiency: design features
  • Energy saving in the workplace
  • Energy saving on transport

 

Local energy scheme in an LIC

  • Nepal - micro hydro plants
  • How the scheme has provided a sustainable energy supply.