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Ashcroft Technology Academy

Ashcroft Technology Academy

GCSE Design and Technology

 

Specification

AQA – GCSE Design and Technology

https://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/design-and-technology/gcse/design-and-technology-8552

Course Content

 

 

Year 9:

Section A – Core technical principles (20 marks)

A mixture of multiple choice and short answer questions assessing a breadth of technical knowledge and understanding.

Year 10:

Section B – Specialist technical principles (30 marks)

Several short answer questions (2–5 marks) and one extended response to assess a more in depth knowledge of technical principles.

Year 11:

Section C – Designing and making principles (50 marks)

A mixture of short answer and extended response questions.

Assessment

Exam content:

  • Core technical principles
  • Specialist technical principles
  • Designing and making principles
  • In addition:
  • at least 15% of the exam will assess maths
  • at least 10% of the exam will assess science

Paper:

  • 2 hours
  • 100 marks
  • 50% of GCSE

Non-exam assessment (NEA):

  • Substantial design and make task
  • 30–35 hours approx.
  • 100 marks
  • 50% of GCSE

List of Resources

The best revision guides:

  • Your exercise books
  • New Grade 9-1 GCSE Design & Technology AQA Revision Guide

(CGP GCSE D&T 9-1 Revision)

The best revision websites:

https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/examspecs/zby2bdm

http://www.technologystudent.com/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section A – Core technical principles (20 marks in the exam)

A mixture of multiple choice and short answer questions assessing a breadth of technical knowledge and understanding.

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised

Making effective design choices.

In order to make effective design choices students will need a breadth of core technical knowledge and understanding that consists of:

  • new and emerging technologies
  • energy generation and storage
  • developments in new materials
  • systems approach to designing
  • mechanical devices
  • materials and their working properties.

 

Industry

The impact of new and emerging technologies on:

The design and organisation of the workplace including automation and the use of robotics buildings and the place of work tools and equipment.

 

Enterprise

Enterprise based on the development of an effective

business innovation:

  • crowd funding
  • virtual marketing and retail
  • co-operatives
  • fair trade

 

Sustainability

The impact of resource consumption on the planet:

  • finite
  • non-finite
  • disposal of waste

Taking into consideration the ecological and social footprint of materials.

 

People

How technology push/market pull affects choice.

Changing job roles due to the emergence of new ways of working driven by technological change.

 

Culture

Changes in fashion and trends in relation to new and emergent technologies.

Respecting people of different faiths and beliefs.

 

Society

How products are designed and made to avoid

having a negative impact on others:

  • design for disabled
  • elderly
  • different religious groups

 

Environment

Positive and negative impacts new products have on

the environment:

  • continuous improvement
  • efficient working
  • pollution
  • global warming

 

Production techniques
and systems

The contemporary and potential future use of:

  • automation
  • computer aided design (CAD)
  • computer aided manufacture (CAM)
  • flexible manufacturing systems (FMS)
  • just in time (JIT)
  • lean manufacturing

 

How the critical
evaluation of new and emerging technologies informs design decisions

That it is important to consider scenarios from

different perspectives and considering:

  • planned obsolescence
  • design for maintenance
  • ethics
  • the environment

 

Energy generation and storage

Students should understand how energy is generated and stored and how this is used as the basis for the selection of products and power systems.

Fossil fuels

How power is generated from:

  • coal
  • gas
  • oil

Arguments for and against the selection of fossil fuels.

Nuclear power

How nuclear power is generated.

Arguments for and against the selection of nuclear power.

Renewable energy

How power is generated from:

  • wind
  • solar
  • tidal
  • hydro-electrical
  • biomass

Arguments for and against the selection of renewable energy.

Energy storage systems including batteries

Kinetic pumped storage systems.

Alkaline and re-chargeable batteries.

 

Developments in new materials

Developments made through the invention of new or

improved processes e.g. Graphene, Metal foams and

Titanium.

Alterations to perform a particular function e.g.

Coated metals, Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) and

Nanomaterials.

Smart materials

That materials can have one or more properties that can be significantly changed in a controlled fashion by external stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, or PH e.g. shape memory alloys, thermochromic pigments and photochromic pigments

Composite materials

That composite materials are produced by combining two or more different materials to create an enhanced material e.g. glass reinforced plastic (GRP) and carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CRP).

Technical textiles

How fibres can be spun to make enhanced fabrics e.g. conductive fabrics, fire resistant fabrics, Kevlar and microfibers incorporating micro encapsulation.

 

Systems approach to designing

Students should consider electronic systems including programmable components to provide functionality to products and processes, and enhance and customise their operation.

Inputs

The use of light sensors, temperature sensors, pressure sensors and switches.

Processes

The use of programming microcontrollers as counters, timers and for decision making, to provide functionality to products and processes.

Outputs

The use of buzzers, speakers and lamps, to provide functionality to products and processes.

 

Mechanical devices

Different types of movement

The functions of mechanical devices to produce linear, rotary, reciprocating and oscillating movements.

Changing magnitude and direction of force Levers:

  • first order
  • second order
  • third order

Linkages:

  • bell cranks
  • push/pull

Rotary systems:

  • CAMs and followers
  • simple gear trains
  • pulleys and belts

 

Materials and their working properties

Students should know and understand the categorisation of the types and properties of the following materials.

Papers and boards

Students should have an overview of the main categories and types of papers and boards:

  • bleed proof
  • cartridge paper
  • grid
  • layout paper
  • tracing paper

boards including:

  • corrugated card
  • duplex board
  • foil lined board
  • foam core board
  • ink jet card
  • solid white board

Natural and manufactured timbers

Students should have an overview of the main categories and types of natural and manufactured timbers:

hardwoods including:

  • ash
  • beech
  • mahogany
  • oak
  • balsa

softwoods including:

  • larch
  • pine
  • spruce

manufactured boards including:

  • medium density fibreboard (MDF)
  • plywood
  • chipboard

Metals and alloys

Students should have an overview of the main categories and types of metals and alloys:

ferrous metals including:

  • low carbon steel
  • cast Iron
  • high carbon/tool steel

non-ferrous metals including:

  • aluminium
  • copper
  • tin
  • zinc

alloys including:

  • brass
  • stainless steel
  • high speed steel

Polymers

Students should have an overview of the main categories and types of polymers:

thermoforming including:

  • acrylic (PMMA)
  • high impact polystyrene (HIPS)
  • high density polythene (HDPE)
  • polypropylene (PP)
  • polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
  • polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

thermosetting including:

  • epoxy resin (ER)
  • melamine-formaldehyde (MF)
  • phenol formaldehyde (PF)
  • polyester resin (PR)
  • urea-formaldehyde (UF)

Textiles

Students should have an overview of the main categories and types of textiles:

natural fibres including:

  • cotton
  • wool
  • silk

synthetic fibres including:

  • polyester
  • polyamide (nylon)
  • elastane (lycra)

blended and mixed fibres including:

  • cotton/polyester

woven including:

  • plain weave

non-woven including:

  • bonded fabrics
  • felted fabrics

knitted textiles including:

  • knitted fabrics

 

Material properties

Students should have an understanding of the working and physical properties of the materials in material categories.

In relation to the main categories outlined above (not the specific materials identified), students should know and understand physical properties such as:

  • absorbency (resistance to moisture)
  • density
  • fusibility
  • electrical and thermal conductivity

In relation to the main categories outlined above (not the specific materials identified), students should know and understand working properties such as:

  • strength
  • hardness
  • toughness
  • malleability
  • ductility and elasticity

 

 

Section B – Specialist technical principles (30 marks in the exam)

Several short answer questions (2–5 marks) and one extended response to assess a more in depth knowledge of technical principles.

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised

In addition to the core technical principles, all students should develop an in-depth knowledge and

understanding of the following specialist technical principles:

• selection of materials or components

• forces and stresses

• ecological and social footprint

• sources and origins

• using and working with materials

• stock forms, types and sizes

• scales of production

• specialist techniques and processes

• surface treatments and finishes

Each specialist technical principle should be delivered through at least one material category or system. Not all of the principles outlined above relate to every material category or system, but all must be taught.

The categories through which the principles can be delivered are:

  • papers and boards
  • timber based materials
  • metal based materials
  • polymers
  • textile based materials
  • electronic and mechanical systems

 

Selection of materials or components

In relation to at least one material category or system, students should be able to select materials and components considering the factors listed below.

Functionality: application of use, ease of working.

Aesthetics: surface finish, texture and colour. Environmental factors: recyclable or reused materials.

Availability: ease of sourcing and purchase.

Cost: bulk buying.

Social factors: social responsibility.

Cultural factors: sensitive to cultural influences.

Ethical factors: purchased from ethical sources such

  • as FSC

 

Forces and stresses

In relation to at least one material category or system, students should know and understand the impact of forces and stresses and the way in which materials can be reinforced and stiffened.

Materials and objects can be manipulated to resist and work with forces and stresses.

  • Tension, compression, bending, torsion and shear. Changing the magnitude and direction of

Materials can be enhanced to resist and work with forces and stresses to improve functionality.

How materials can be reinforced, stiffened or made

more flexible: e.g. lamination, bending, folding, webbing, fabric interfacing

 

Ecological and social footprint

In relation to at least one material category or system, students should have a knowledge and understanding of the ecological and social footprint left by designers.

Ecological issues in the design and manufacture of products.

Deforestation, mining, drilling and farming.

Mileage of product from raw material source, manufacture, distribution, user location and final disposal.

That carbon is produced during the manufacture of products.

The six R’s

  • Reduce, refuse, re-use, repair, recycle and rethink.

Social issues in the design and manufacture of products

Safe working conditions; reducing oceanic/

atmospheric pollution and reducing the detrimental

  • (negative) impact on others

 

Sources and origins

In relation to at least one material category, students should know and understand the sources and origins of materials.

Primary sources of materials and the main processes involved in converting into workable forms for at least one material area.

  • Textile based materials (obtaining raw material from animal, chemical and vegetable sources, processing and spinning).

 

Using and working with materials.

In relation to at least one material category or system, students should know and understand in addition to material properties, the factors listed below.

Properties of materials.

Students must know and understand how different properties of materials and components are used in commercial products, how properties influence use and how properties affect performance.

Students must know and understand the physical and mechanical properties relevant to commercial products in their chosen area as follows.

  • Textile based materials (sportswear and furnishings).

 

 

The modification of properties for specific purposes

  • Flame retardants reduce combustion and fire hazards (textile based materials).

How to shape and form using cutting, abrasion and addition.

  • Textile based materials (how to sew, pleat, gather, quilt and pipe).

 

Stock forms, types and sizes.

In relation to at least one material category or system, students should know and understand the different stock forms types and sizes in order to calculate and determine the quantity of materials or components required.

Commercially available types and sizes of materials and components.

Textile based materials:

  • yarns and fabrics
  • sold by roll size, width, weight and ply
  • standard components e.g. zips, press studs, Velcro

 

Scales of production.

In relation to at least one material category or system, students should be able to select materials and components considering scales of production and referencing the processes listed in Specialist Techniques and processes.

How products are produced in different volumes.

The reasons why different manufacturing methods are used for different production volumes:

  • prototype
  • batch
  • mass
  • continuous

 

Specialist techniques and processes.

In relation to at least one material category or system, students should know and understand the factors listed below.

The use of production aids.

How to use measurement/reference points, templates, jigs and patterns where suitable.

 

Tools, equipment and processes.

A range of tools, equipment and processes that can be used to shape, fabricate, construct and assemble high quality prototypes, as appropriate to the materials and/or components being used including wastage, such as:

  • cutting and shearing

addition, such as:

  • batik
  • sewing
  • bonding
  • printing

deforming and reforming such as:

  • creasing
  • pressing
  • drape forming

 

How materials are cut shaped and formed to a tolerance.

The manufacture to minimum and maximum measurements.

 

Commercial processes

  • Textile based materials (weaving, dying and printing)

 

Quality control

The application and use of quality control to include measurable and quantitative systems used during manufacture.

  • Textile based materials (dimensional accuracy checking a repeating print against an original sample)

 

Surface treatments and finishes

In relation to at least one material category or system, students should have knowledge and understanding of surface treatments and finishes.

The preparation and application of treatments and finishes to enhance functional and aesthetic properties.

  • Textile based materials (printing, dyes and stain protection)

 

 

Section C – Designing and making principles (50 marks in the exam)

A mixture of short answer and extended response questions.

Content:

What you need to be able to do

Tick when revised

Substantial design and make task

  • Identifying and investigating design possibilities
  • Producing a design brief and specification
  • Generating design ideas
  • Developing design ideas
  • Realising design ideas
  • Analysing & evaluating
  • In the spirit of the iterative design process, the above should be awarded holistically where
  • they take place and not in a linear manner
  • Contextual challenges to be released annually by AQA on 1 June in the year prior to the
  • submission of the NEA
  • Students will produce a prototype and a portfolio of evidence
  • Work will be marked by teachers and moderated by AQA

 

Designing and making principles

Students should know and understand that all design and technology activities take place within a wide range of contexts.

They should also understand how the prototypes they develop must satisfy wants or needs and be fit for their intended user. For example, the home, school, work or leisure.

Investigation, primary and secondary data

Use primary and secondary data to understand client and/or user needs

How the following techniques are used and applied:

  • market research, interviews and human factors including ergonomics
  • focus groups and product analysis and evaluation
  • the use of anthropometric data and percentiles

 

How to write a design brief and produce a design and manufacturing specification

Students should consider their own needs, wants and interests and those of others.

 

Carry out investigations in order to identify problems and needs

Why a designer considers alterations to a brief and modifying the brief as required.

 

Environmental, social and economic challenge

The environment, social and economic challenges

that influence design and making.

How the following might present opportunities and constraints that influence the processes of

designing and making:

  • deforestation
  • possible increase in carbon dioxide levels leading to potential global warming
  • the need for fair trade

 

The work of others

Students should investigate, analyse and evaluate the work of past and present designers and companies to inform their own designing.

Students should investigate the work of a minimum of two of the following designers:

  • Alexander McQueen
  • Aldo Rossi
  • Charles Rennie Macintosh
  • Coco Chanel

Students should investigate the work of a minimum

of two of the following companies:

  • Gap
  • Primark
  • Under Armour
  • Zara

 

Design strategies

Generate imaginative and creative design ideas using a range of different design

strategies

How different strategies can be applied, including:

  • collaboration
  • user centered design
  • a systems approach
  • iterative design
  • avoiding design fixation

 

Explore and develop their own ideas

How this can be done using an iterative process

including:

  • sketching
  • modelling
  • testing
  • evaluation of their work to improve outcomes

 

Communication of design ideas

Develop, communicate, record and justify design ideas using a range of appropriate techniques such as:

  • freehand sketching, isometric and perspective
  • 2D and 3D drawings
  • system and schematic diagrams
  • annotated drawings that explain detailed
  • development or the conceptual stages of designing
  • exploded diagrams to show constructional detail or assembly
  • working drawings: 3rd angle orthographic, using conventions, dimensions and drawn to scale
  • audio and visual recordings in support of
  • aspects of designing: e.g. interviews with client or users
  • mathematical modelling
  • computer based tools
  • modelling: working directly with materials and components, e.g. card modelling, producing a toile when designing garments, constructing a
  • circuit using breadboard

 

Prototype development

Design and develop prototypes in response to client wants and needs. Note the term prototype can be used to describe either a product or system.

How the development of prototypes:

  • satisfy the requirements of the brief
  • respond to client wants and needs
  • demonstrate innovation
  • are functional
  • consider aesthetics
  • are potentially marketable

Students should know and understand how to evaluate prototypes and be able to:

  • reflect critically, responding to feedback when evaluating their own prototypes
  • suggest modifications to improve them through inception and manufacture
  • assess if prototypes are fit for purpose

 

Selection of materials and components

Appropriate materials and components to make a

prototype.

How to select and use materials and components appropriate to the task considering:

  • functional need
  • cost
  • availability

 

Tolerances

Work accurately using tolerances.

How a range of materials are cut, shaped and formed to designated tolerances.

Why tolerances are applied during making activities.

 

Material management

Cut materials efficiently and minimise waste

The importance of planning the cutting and shaping of material to minimise waste e.g. nesting of shapes and parts to be cut from material stock forms.

How additional material may be removed by a cutting method or required for seam allowance, joint overlap etc.

 

Use appropriate marking out methods, data points and coordinates

The value of using measurement and marking out to create an accurate and quality prototype.

The use of data points and coordinates including the use of reference points, lines and surfaces, templates, jigs and/or patterns.

 

Specialist tools and equipment

How to select and use specialist tools and equipment, including hand tools, machinery, digital design and manufacture, appropriate for the material and/or task to complete quality outcomes.

How to use them safely to protect themselves and

others from harm.

 

Specialist techniques and processes

How to select and use specialist techniques and processes appropriate for the material and/or task and use them to the required level of accuracy in order to complete quality outcomes.

How to use them safely to shape, fabricate and construct a high quality prototype, including techniques such as wastage, addition, deforming and reforming.

 

Surface treatments and finishes

Students should know and understand that surface treatments and finishes are applied for functional and aesthetic purposes.

How to prepare a material for a treatment or finish.

How to apply an appropriate surface treatment or finish.